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BOTULINUM NEUROTOXIN-CLINICAL USES

Dajana Tsankova, Neli Ermenlieva, Gabriela Tsankova, Tatina Todorova, Mariya Rostamloo

Abstract

Introduction: Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) is produced by the spore-forming anaerobic bacterium Clostridium botulinum, which causes botulism. The symptoms of the disease are severe, expressed in tiredness, nausea and vomiting. At a later stage, loss of head control and floppy movements due to muscle weakness, blurred vision, drooping eyelids (ptosis), difficulty swallowing or speaking, trouble breathing are observed. Death may occur due respiratory paralysis or cardiac arrest. Muscle paralyses are caused by BoNT that blocks acetylcholine release – the neurotransmitter of the nerve impulses to muscle fibers. (BoNT) is the most poisonous biological substance known to mankind but it has successfully established itself as a therapeutic agent over the years. This agent has found numerous uses in medicine and has been advocated for many other conditions such as aesthetic reduction of facial wrinkles. The aim of our literature review is to summarize the scientific data about current uses of botulinum neurotoxin in medicine.

Materials and Methods: The search for articles published in English from 1990 to 2016 was conducted. The review contains data from 38 research papers.

Results: Since its development more than 2.5 decades ago, botulinum neurotoxin has become a drug in various fields in medicine. It turns out to be extremely effective in care of different disorders such as dystonia ,urine incontinence, distortion or deformation of limbs at birth, hypersalivation, chronic anal fissures, allergic rhinitis, stammer, bruxism, Frey’s syndrome, cerebral palsy  and others .It has also found widespread use in correction of glabellar wrinkles.

Conclusion: Because of its high efficiency and safety of application, BoNT may have usage in various fields of medicine.


Keywords

botulinum neurotoxin, clinical uses, side effects


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