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Capabilities of Rehabilitation medicine in Mucoviscidosis Patients Treatment

Magdalena Bliznakova, Boyko Matev, Pavel Todorov, Nikolay Nedev

Abstract

Introduction: Mucoviscidosis is a genetic autosomal recessive disease, occurring in adults and children alike. It results from a mutation in the CFTR gene, responsible for a protein that regulates membrane permeability and ion transport in the epithelium surface in numerous systems in the organism. Its effects are most noticeable in the respiratory tracts, the pancreatic tracts, the intestines, the biliary tracts, the sweat glands and others. Regarding the respiratory system, most characteristic are the changes in the chlorine channels. Their function is restricted by the presence of a thick, viscous secretion, the removal of which is difficult or even impossible. This viscous secretion can become infected by various microorganisms, leading to inflammation and complications in the general state of the patients. The pathological changes in the aforementioned systems result in the progression of the disease and a drastic reduction of the quality of life of the patients. Rehabilitation medicine and physical medicine have an essential role in complex pulmonary ventilation therapy.

Materials and Methods: A limited search with the keywords “cystic fibrosis”, “physiotherapy”, “exercises” and “drainage” was conducted using the NCBITM and PubMedTM databases, which yielded over 20 articles, 10 of which were selected and thoroughly analyzed. The aim of this research is to present the capabilities of medical rehabilitation, the experience of specialists in the field and the expected benefits of medical rehabilitation in mucoviscidosis treatment.

Results: Multiple authors recommend the usage of rehabilitatory tools in the complex treatment of the disease. Treadmill exercises, respiratory gymnastics, including autogenic drainage, body posture training and training in the use of expectoration aid, all show promise in the amelioration of respiratory indicators.

Conclusions: These recommendations, barring cases with individual contraindications, should be used and incorporated as a mandatory element in the rehabilitation care of mucoviscidosis patients.


Keywords

cystic fibrosis, physiotherapy, exercises, drainage


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