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Dental Trauma. Decoronation Technique as a Successful Method in the Treatment of Ankylosis

Ivelina Hristova, Slavena Georgieva, Ralitsa Yotsova, Konstantina Velikova, Sirma Angelova

Abstract

Introduction: Dental trauma is a common condition among children which occurs more often at the age of 8-12 years. Posttraumatic dental ankylosis is a major problem that can be solved with decoronation.  This is a technique developed in 1984 to remove ankylosed teeth and increase marginal bone levels in young growing individuals.

Materials and Methods: After studying different articles and researches we have tried to describe the main advantages of the decoronation technique.

Results: The decoronation technique is suggested as an alternative treatment to the extraction of ankylosed teeth which attempts to preserve its surrounding alveolar bone and prevent tooth infra-positioning. This procedure involves gingival mucoperiosteal flap elevation, subcrestal removal of the tooth crown leaving the root in its alveolus to be replaced by bone. Following complete crown removal, the existing root canal filling is removed to prevent foreign body reaction. The preservation of decoronated roots in the alveolar process helps maintain existing bone volume and enables vertical bone growth which can be observed coronally to the decoronated root. Studies show that in early mixed dentition (age 7–10 years) cases – decoronation should be performed within 2 years, whereas in late mixed dentition (age 10–12 years) cases – a decision based on the individual case  should be made.

Conclusion: In conclusion, we can summarize that dental trauma often results in tooth ankyloses, which can lead to serious complications such as root resorption, tooth infra-position, or can affect the development of the alveolar ridge. The adequate treatment in such cases requires performing the decoronation technique, which not only helps in preserving the bone volume but also complements the future prosthetic treatment.


Keywords

dental trauma, decoronation technique, ankylosis


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