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Ultrasound in Gynaecological Emergencies

Isil Uyanik, Elis Ismail

Abstract

Introduction: The increased development of ultrasonography as a diagnostic tool and its safe, non-invasive, patient-accepted factors make it the preferred imaging modality for gynaecological emergencies. Since the indications of ultrasound usage are numerous, choosing the type of ultrasound depending on the clinical picture of the patient and the hospital amenities varies. 

Materials and Methods: The information for this scientific review was gathered using the search platform of Google Scholar using the keywords “gynaecology”, “ultrasonography”, “emergency”. All of the articles used in this review have been published in peer-reviewed journals with impact factor.

Results: The safety of ultrasonography for all stages of known and unknown pregnancies make it a preferred imaging diagnostic tool for the female pelvis in general. Patients arriving with complaints of abdominal or pelvic pain and vaginal bleeding may have vastly different diagnosis despite the common symptoms, therefore, they would need a different therapy course. Ultrasound can aid in differentiating quickly and accurately among many of the causes at admission to emergency room. At the top of the list are complicated ectopic pregnancy, complicated pelvic inflammatory disease, adnexal torsion and haemoperitoneum of any gynaecological origin. Depending on the clinical indications, most of the used ultrasound types are abdominal, transvaginal, pelvis or point-care ultrasound for gynaecological emergencies. Patient care is managed actively and based on observation the treatment might be maintained or changed depending on the overall results.

Conclusion: Ultrasound is among the most common diagnostic tools especially the transvaginal type, followed by medical history, clinical examination and laboratory tests. Therefore, even when it precedes other imaging tests, being competent in it is still a core skill for clinical care in both gynaecology and emergency medicine because of  its efficiency as a tool in decision making.


Keywords

gynaecology, ultrasonography, emergency medicine


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