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Epilepsy in Childhood – Review of the Literature

Ivaylo Zhechev, Boyana Vasileva, Kristiyana Kolewa, Georgi Gaidarov, Desislava Videva

Abstract

Introduction: Epilepsy is a disorder characterized by repeated attacks – motor, sensory, autonomic, mental and behavioral, which are expressed with a characteristic electroencephalograph finding during an attack. The attack starts from an epileptogenic locus and can spread or remain in the locus. The epileptogenic locus could be or not with an abnormal macroscopic view. In all cases, the locus is with reduced threshold of excitability. Lack of sleep, stress, alcohol and others may be provoking factors for an epileptic attack. The presence of only one attack is not a criterion for diagnosing epilepsy. Epilepsy is one of the most common neurological disorders. The disorder is most commonly seen in childhood. The nature, severity, incidence of disease and contingent of patients show that the disease has a great social significance. The aim is an analysis of predisposing factors for the occurrence of epilepsy in childhood. We present an overview of available data for epilepsy in children and the responsible factors for the occurrence of the disorder.

Materials and Methods: An analysis of epidemiological studies was conducted. Literature review of the available scientific data in the last 5 years was done.

Results:  The genetic role for the occurrence of epilepsy is undeniable, but in over 60% of cases there is no detected clear cause of disease. With age the percentage of trauma associated epilepsy is increased and accordingly the incidence of unexplained cases of epilepsy - reduced.

Conclusion: As a multifactor disease, epilepsy remains difficult for early diagnosis and prevention. In this aspect, great hopes are genetics and the discovery of the human genome.


Keywords

epilepsy, childhood, factors, psychological disorder


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