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Acute Intoxications with Ethylene Glycol in Varna region: 25-Year Experience

Petko Marinov, Kaloyan Georgiev, Yulichka Subeva, Dobri Ivanov, Snezha Zlateva, Ivaylo Vazharov

Abstract

Ethylene glycol (EG) is a bivalent alcohol. It is composed of many commercial and industrial products such as anti-freeze, coolants, deicing, brake solutions, detergents and lacquers and is used as an organic solvent of many substances. Accidental and intentional poisonings with EG are rare, but potentially lethal and are a challenge to the clinical toxicology. Retrospectively, we followed the acute intoxications with EG for a 25-year period (1991-2015) in the Varna region, Republic of Bulgaria. The subject of the study were 95 patients with acute EG poisoning, at average age of 46.8 years (21-77), who had received treatment at the Clinic of Toxicology and the diagnosis was confirmed by gas chromatographic method. EG intoxications are specific to male gender, male:female 6.9:1. All poisonings are result of oral intake mainly of antifreeze, 92.6% of them are being accidental and only 7,4% deliberate. A lethal outcome was registered in 8 (8,4%) patients. Extreme renal insufficiency occurred at 9 (10.3%) of the survived patients.


Keywords

acute poisoning, intoxication, ethyleneglycol, acute renal failure (ARF), haemodialysis, alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH).

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.14748/ssm.v49i3.4015

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About The Authors

Petko Marinov
MU-Varna
Bulgaria

Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmacotherapy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Medical University “Prof. Paraskev Stoianov”- Varna, Marin Drinov Str.55, 9002 Varna, Bulgaria

Kaloyan Georgiev
MU-Varna
Bulgaria

Department of Pharmaceutical technologies, Faculty of Pharmacy, Medical University “Prof. Paraskev Stoianov”- Varna, Marin Drinov Str.55, 9002 Varna, Bulgaria

Yulichka Subeva
MU-Varna
Bulgaria

Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmacotherapy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Medical University “Prof. Paraskev Stoianov”- Varna, Marin Drinov Str.55, 9002 Varna, Bulgaria

Dobri Ivanov
MU-Varna
Bulgaria

Department of Biology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Medical University “Prof. Paraskev Stoianov”- Varna, Marin Drinov Str.55, 9002 Varna, Bulgaria

Snezha Zlateva
MU-Varna
Bulgaria

Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmacotherapy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Medical University “Prof. Paraskev Stoianov”- Varna, Marin Drinov Str.55, 9002 Varna, Bulgaria

Ivaylo Vazharov

Bulgaria

Clinic of Internal Diseases, Naval Hospital – Varna, MilitaryMedical Academy, Bulgaria.

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